Laÿna Droz, 2021, The Concept of Milieu in Environmental Ethics, Individual Responsibility within an Interconnected World, Routledge. Click for more

This book discusses how we can come together to address current environmental problems at the planetary level, such as climate change, biodiversity loss, transborder pollution and desertification. It draws on the concept of milieu (fūdo) inspired by the Japanese philosopher, Watsuji Tetsurō, which captures how we act within and perceive our surroundings as a web of culturally, historically and geographically situated meanings and values. It argues that the milieu connects us as individuals with community, past and future history, and the natural world, providing us with common ground for global environmental ethics.




  1. Introduction
    1. Environmental urgency
    2. Current dominant key ideas
    3. Pragmatism and need for consensus
    4. Plan
  2. Milieu
    1. Three-level model
    2. Background of the concept of milieu
    3. Updating the idea of milieu
    4. Medial matrix shaping individuals
    5. Ethical action as medial imprint
    6. Summary
  3. Sustainability
    1. Precaution, diversity and environmental autonomy
    2. Normative implications
    3. Limits and priorities
    4. Summary
  4. Responsibility
    1. Imprints and contributory individual responsibility
    2. Matrix and capacity responsibility
    3. Responsibility to do reparative actions
    4. Pragmatic safeguards
    5. Summary
  5. Conclusion

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